The system should now boot as is, however it would be a good idea to set a root password, and set the time zone now. To do this we can use the change root option to make the live CD system believe its running from the newly installed partition to set-up the configuration options.
chroot /mnt passwd tzsetup exit shutdown -r now
Note: chroot: Changes the root to the directory that follows passwd: Changes the current users password, you will be prompted for the new password, and a second confirmation prompt tzsetup: Launches the Time Zone Setup dialogue, follow the prompts exit: Exits the chroot environment and returns you to the main live CD environment shutdown: Of course tells it to reboot, you might want to remove the CD / USB, whichever method you used to boot, so that the system boots from the hard disk.
If you did everything correctly the system should boot up cleanly and you can log into the console with the root password set earlier. This is still a vary basic install, much more must be done to make the system useful, but it should now be running and have access to the network.